Editor’s Note: This is Part II of a two-part series that discusses blank optimization and some of the process variables that affect the fracture and restraining forces in deep drawing. Part I, which appeared in the May/June 2019 issue, discussed the use of draw beads and spacers in deep drawing. Finite element (FE) simulations can be used to predict the occurrence of fracture or wrinkles in a given deep drawing, thus reducing the number of experimental tryouts in die design and manufacturing. Blank optimization reduces the possibility of fracture and wrinkles in the final formed part. FE analysis software can give an optimal initial blank geometry based on the final part shape and stretching desired in the material. The importance of choosing the appropriate initial blank geometry is illustrated by an example die set, built by Honda, containing draw beads and spacers (see Figure 1). The process was simulated in AutoForm software for 1.2-millimeter-thick aluminum 5182-O and 1.5-mm-thick spacers; the spacer height was assumed to be uniform around the part in FE simulations, neglecting the potential elastic deflections on the tools and the press. A coefficient of friction (COF) of...